Baikal in numbers

 

Байкал в цифрах. Выборочные данные из справочника «Байкал в цифрах» 2001 г. Сибирское отделение РАН. Иркутский научный центр. Байкальский музей. Выборка сделана Степанцовым М.В.


к оглавлению "Байкал. Научно и популярно"



Arear of Baikal's catchment 570 000 sq.km.
Total area of Baikal's basin 300 000 sq. km.
Length (talweg) 636 km.
Width maximum (abeam of Onguren and Ust-Barguzin villages) 79.5 km.
Width minimum 25 km.
Width medium 47.8 km.
Length of the shoreline 2000 km.
Arear of the surface (including islands) 31500 km.
Number of tributaries About 500
Depth maximum 1642 m.
Depth average 758 m.
Depth of the Southern basin:  
Maximum 1446 m.
Medium 843 m.
Depth of the Central basin:  
Maximum 1642 m.
Medium 854 m.
Depth of the Northern basin:  
Maximum 903 m.
Medium 576 m.
The lake surface above sea level 454 m.
Areas of Baikal bays:  
Barguzinsky 791 sq. km.
Chivyrkuisky 268 sq. km.
Maloe Sea 1019 sq. km.
Total area of 22 islands: 716 sq. km.
Olkhon Island  
Length 71.7 km.
Width maximum 14 km.
Area 700 sq. km.
Altitude above sea level (Zhima Mountain) 1274 m.
Archipelago of Ushkanie Islands:  
Area of Big Ushkany Island 15 sq. km.
Altitude about sea level 216 m.
Water level average changes under the natural conditions 82 cm.
Water level seasonal changes 60-120 cm.
Water level multiyear amplitude of level changes 2.23cm.
The North-western shore 101
The South-eastern shore 73
Duration of sun radiance (in the North of the lake) 1900-2000 hours/ year
Duration of sun radiance in the Southern and Central parts of the lake 2000-2400 hours /year
Duration of baric seasons for Baikal Region 4-5 months
Duration of cold season for Baikal Region up to 7 months
Moisture evaporation 19.1 cbkm
Precipitation 12.8 cbkm
Average annual run-off 61 cbkm
Annual temperature amplitudes (islands, shore) 50-60°C
Annual temperature amplitudes on the ridges up to 100°C
Maximum winds power up to 50 m/sec
Average winter temperature –25°C
Average summer temperature +17°C
Geological age (Cretaceous-Late Eocene) 70-35 mln years
Sediments' age (Tompundinskaya moraine) 39 000 years
Sediments' age (Relskaya moraine) 26 000 years
Chernozem silts on the first Baikal terraces 7000 years
Peat bogs of Chivyrkuisky Bay 10000-12000 years
Thickness of the earth's crust under the mountain ridges of Baikal Region 45-55 years
Minimum thickness to the earth's crust subface in the center of Baikal basin 34 km
Cenozoic sediment thickness in the basin 3-8.5 km
Seismicity (annual number of earthquakes) >2000
earthquakes' recurrence 7 magnitude 1-2 years
8 magnitude 5-10 years
9 magnitude 50-100 years
10 > 10 150-200 years
Earthquakes' epicenter depth 12-22 km
Maximum altitude of the mountain ridges around Baikal(the Barguzin Mountain Ridge) 2840 m
Area of semicovered glaciers of Meso-Pleistocene glaciation >10 000 sq km
Thickness of mountain and valley glaciers >1000 m
Sloping piedmont plain (abrasive relief)occupies area from the shores of Baikal to it depths 10-12 m 60%
Average bottom slope 30-65°
Maximum thermal springs temperature 80-82°
Thickness of many year frozen ground (on interfluve areas) Up to 0-500-600 m
Depth of summer thawing Up to 0.5-3 m
Depth of winter freezing Up 1 to 5 m
Area of mountain and tundra zones 20%
Mountain and forest zone 45%
Mountain and steppe zone 35%
Swell: calm in June-July (waves >0.5 m) 80% of the time
Wave height up to 1.5 m 80% of all summer storms
Wave height &dt; 2 m 17%
Wave height > 3 m 3%
In autumn waves can reach 5 m (rare)  
Velocity wind currents at the surface Up to 1.4 m/sec
Velocity of circulatory currents at the depths (50m) 56 cm/sec
250 m 30 cm/sec
675 m 12 cm/sec
1000 m 8 cm/sec
1200 m 6 cm/sec
Average monthly velocities of circulatory currents at the surface 2-3 km/ day
During storms Up to 8-12 km/ day
Duration of substitution of depth waters for surface waters Up to 11-20 years
Duration of water exchange in the Northern basin 225 years
Duration of water exchange in the Central basin 132 years
In the Southern basin 66 years
The whole Baikal 356 years
Water volume total 23.6x1013 liters
Sound velocity in Baikal surface waters in winter 140.2 m/sec
Duration of ice covered period 4-5 months
Ice thickness in a freeze-up day 5-20 cm
Speed of the ice growing From 1 to 5 cm/day
Width of constant cracks 40 cm up to several meters
Size of ice fields divided with cracks 10-30 km
Complete release from the ice in the South 12-16 of May
In the North 9-14 of June
Terms of freezing The beginning of January
Total amount of live organisms inhabiting Lake Baikal (species and subspecies) 2635
Number of endemic hydrobionts 1800
Omul biomass in Lake Baikal 26000 ton
Nerpa amount 50 000-100 000
Number of autotrophic pinoplankton Up to 1 mln cells/ml
Biomass of Epishura and cyclop 1.8 mln ton

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